Mechanisms of Normal and Pathological Calcification


1. Chen PY, Tororian D, Price PA. Minerals Form a Continuum Phase in Mature Cancellous Bone. Calcified Tissue International. 2011; Vol 88 #5: 351-361. Full article

2. Price PA, Tororian D Lim JE. Mineralization by Inhibitor Exclusion: The Calcification of Collagen with Fetuin. J Biol Chem. 2009; 284: 17092-17101. Full article

3. Price PA, Tororian D, Chan WS Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Is Required for the Calcification of Collagen in Serum: A Possible Mechanism for Biomineralization. J Biol Chem. 2009; 284: 4594-4604. Full article

4. Toroian, D, and Price, PA. The essential role of fetuin in the serum-induced calcification of collagen. Calcified Tissue International. 2008; 82(2):116-126 Full article

5. Toroian D, Lim JL, Price PA. The size exclusion characteristics of type I collagen: implications for the role of non-collagenous bone constituents in mineralization. J Biol Chem. 2007; 282:22437-47. Full Article; Supplementary Figure.

6. O'Donnell CJ, Shea MK, Price PA, Gagnon DR, Wilson PW, Larson MG, Kiel DP, Hoffmann U, Ferencik M, Clouse ME, Williamson MK, Cupples LA, Dawson-Hughes B, Booth SL. Matrix Gla protein is associated with risk factors for atherosclerosis but not with coronary artery calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006; 26(12):2769-74. Full Article

7. Price PA, Roublick AM, Williamson MK. Artery calcification in uremic rats is increased by a low protein diet and prevented by treatment with ibandronate. Kidney International 2006; 70(9):1577-83. Full Article

8. Hamlin NJ, Ong KG, Price PA. A serum factor that recalcifies demineralized bone is conserved in bony fish and sharks but is not found in invertebrates. Calcified Tissue International. 2006 78:326-334. Full Article

9. Price PA, Chan WS, Jolson DM, Williamson MK. The elastic lamellae of devitalized arteries calcify when incubated in serum: evidence for a serum calcification factor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26(5):1079-85. Full Article

10. Hamlin NJ and Price PA. Mineralization of decalcified bone occurs under cell culture conditions and requires bovine serum but not cells. Calcified Tissue International 2004 75:231-242. Full Article

11. Price PA, June HH, Hamlin NJ, Williamson MK. Evidence for a serum factor that initiates the re-calcification of demineralized bone. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30;279(18):19169-80. Epub 2004 Feb 20. Full Article

12. Price PA, Williamson MK, Nguyen TM, Than TN. Serum levels of the fetuin-mineral complex correlate with artery calcification in the rat. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 16;279(3):1594-600. Epub 2003 Oct 24. Full Article

13. Price PA and Lim JE.The Inhibition of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation by Fetuin is Accompanied by the Formation of a Fetuin-Mineral Complex. J Biol Chem. 2003 278(24):22144-52. Full Article

14. Price PA, Nguyen TMT and Williamson MK.Biochemical Characterization of the Serum Fetuin-Mineral Complex. J Biol Chem. 2003 278(24):22153-60. Full Article

15. Price PA, Omid N, Than TN, Williamson MK. The Amino Bisphosphonate Ibandronate Prevents Calciphylaxis in the Rat at Doses that Inhibit Bone Resorption. Calcif Tissue. Int. 2002 Oct;71(4):356-63. Full Article

16. Price PA, June HH, Buckley JR, Williamson MK. SB 242784, a selective inhibitor of the osteoclastic V-H+ATPase, inhibits arterial calcification in the rat. Circ Res 2002 Sep 20;91(6):547-52. Full Article

17. Price PA, Caputo JM, Williamson MK. Bone origin of the serum complex of calcium, phosphate, fetuin, and matrix Gla protein: Biochemical evidence for the cancellous bone-remodeling compartment. J.Bone Min. Research. 2002; 17(7):1171-79. Full Article

18. Price PA, Thomas GR, Pardini AW, Figueira WF, Caputo JM, Williamson MK. Discovery of a high molecular weight complex of calcium, phosphate, fetuin, and matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein in the serum of etidronate-treated rats. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 8;277(6):3926-34. Full Article

19. Price PA, Buckley JR, Williamson MK. The amino bisphosphonate ibandronate prevents vitamin D toxicity and inhibits vitamin D-induced calcification of arteries, cartilage, lungs and kidneys in rats. J Nutr. 2001 Nov;131(11):2910-5. Full Article

20. Price PA, June HH, Buckley JR, Williamson MK. Osteoprotegerin inhibits artery calcification induced by warfarin and by vitamin D. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Oct;21(10):1610-6. Full Article

21. Price PA, Faus SA, Williamson MK. Bisphosphonates alendronate and ibandronate inhibit artery calcification at doses comparable to those that inhibit bone resorption. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 May;21(5):817-24. Full Article

22. Price PA, Faus SA, Williamson MK. Warfarin-induced artery calcification is accelerated by growth and vitamin D. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000 Feb;20(2):317-27. Full Article

23. Price PA, Faus SA, Williamson MK. Warfarin causes rapid calcification of the elastic lamellae in rat arteries and heart valves. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Sep;18(9):1400-7. Full Article

Functions of Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins, MGP and BGP in Calcification

1. Price PA, Roublick AM, Williamson MK. Artery calcification in uremic rats is increased by a low protein diet and prevented by treatment with ibandronate. Kidney International 2006; 70(9):1577-83. Full Article

2. Laize V, Viegas CS, Price PA, Cancela ML. Identification of an osteocalcin isoform in fish with a large acidic prodomain. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 2;281(22):15037-43. Full Article

3. Laize V, Martel P, Viegas CS, Price PA, Cancela ML. Evolution of matrix and bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid proteins in vertebrates. J Biol Chem. 2005 280(29):26659-68. Full Article

4. Frazao C, Simes DC, Coelho R, Alves D, Williamson MK, Price PA, Cancela ML, Carrondo MA. Structural evidence of a fourth Gla residue in fish osteocalcin: biological implications. Biochemistry 2005 44(4):1234-42. Full Article

5. Simes DC, Williamson MK, Schaff BJ, Gavaia PJ, Ingleton PM, Price PA, Cancela ML. Characterization of osteocalcin (BGP) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) fish specific antibodies: validation for immunodetection studies in lower vertebrates. Calcif Tissue Int. 2004 Feb;74(2):170-80. Epub 2003 Dec 15. Full Article

6. Simes DC, Williamson MK, Ortiz-Delgado JB, Viegas CS, Price PA, Cancela ML. Purification of matrix Gla protein from a marine teleost fish, Argyrosomus regius: calcified cartilage and not bone as the primary site of MGP accumulation in fish. J Bone Miner Res 2003 Feb;18(2):244-59. Full Article

7. Cancela ML, Ohresser MC, Reia JP, Viegas CS, Williamson MK, Price PA. Matrix Gla protein in Xenopus laevis: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and evolutionary considerations. J Bone Miner Res 2001 Sep;16(9):1611-21. Full Article

8. Cancela ML, Hu B, Price PA. Effect of cell density and growth factors on matrix GLA protein expression by normal rat kidney cells. J Cell Physiol 1997 May;171(2):125-34 Full Article

9. Kirfel J, Kelter M, Cancela LM, Price PA, Schule R. Identification of a novel negative retinoic acid responsive element in the promoter of the human matrix Gla protein gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997 Mar 18;94(6):2227-32. Full Article

10.Baumgrass R, Williamson MK, Price PA. Identification of peptide fragments generated by digestion of bovine and human osteocalcin with the lysosomal proteinases cathepsin B, D. L, H, and S. J Bone Miner Res 1997; 12(3):447-55. Full Article

11. Cancela ML, Williamson MK, Price PA. Amino-acid sequence of bone Gla protein from the African clawed toad Xenopus laevis and the fish Sparus aurata. Int J Pept Protein Res 1995 Nov;46(5):419-23.

12. Price PA, Rice JS, Williamson MK. Conserved phosphorylation of serines in the Ser-X-Glu/Ser(P) sequences of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Glaprotein from shark, lamb, rat, cow, and human. Protein Sci 1994 May;3(5):822-30. Full Article

13. Rice JS, Williamson MK, Price PA. Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage of the soupfin shark. J Bone Miner Res 1994 Apr;9(4):567-76. Abstract

14. Rannels SR, Cancela ML, Wolpert EB, Price PA. Matrix Gla protein mRNA expression in cultured type II pneumocytes. Am J Physiol 1993 Sep;265(3 Pt 1):L270-8. Abstract

15. Cancela ML, Price PA. Retinoic acid induces matrix Gla protein gene expression in human cells. Endocrinology 1992 Jan;130(1):102-8. Full Article

16. Hale JE, Williamson MK, Price PA. Carboxyl-terminal proteolytic processing of matrix Gla protein. J Biol Chem 1991 Nov 5;266(31):21145-9. Full Article

17. Cancela L, Hsieh CL, Francke U, Price PA. Molecular structure, chromosome assignment, and promoter organization of the human matrix Gla protein gene. J Biol Chem 1990 Sep 5;265(25):15040-8. Full Article

18. Price PA, Fraser JD, Metz-Virca G. Molecular cloning of matrix Gla protein: implications for substrate recognition by the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987 Dec;84(23):8335-9. Full Article

19. Price PA, Williamson MK. Primary structure of bovine matrix Gla protein, a new vitamin K-dependent bone protein. J Biol Chem 1985 Dec 5;260(28):14971-5. Full Article

YKL-40: A New Prognostic Biomarker in Cancer

1. Johansen JS, Jensen BV, Roslind A, Nielsen D, Price PA. Serum YKL-40, a new progostic biomarker in cancer patients? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15(2):194-202. Full Article

2. Brasso K, Christensen IJ, Johansen JS, Teisner B, Garnero P, Price PA, Iversen P. Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Prostate 2006; 66(5):503-13. Full Article

3. Nordenbaek C, Johansen JS, Halberg P, Wiik A, Garbarsch C, Ullman S, Price PA, Jacobsen S. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with systemic sclerosis are associated with pulmonary involvement. Scan J. Rheumatology 2005; 34(4):293-7. Full Article

4. Johansen JS, Milman N, Hansen M, Garbarsch C, Price PA, Graudal N. Increased serum YKL-40 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis -- a potential marker of disease activity? Resiratory Medicine 2005; 99(4) 396-402. Full Article

5. Johansen JS, Drivsholm L, Price PA, Christensen IJ. High serum YKL-40 level in patients with small cell lung cancer is related to early death. Lung Cancer 2004 ; 46:333-40. Full Article

6. Jensen BV, Johansen JS, Price PA. High levels of serum HER-2/neu and YKL-40 independently reflect aggressiveness of metastatic breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Oct 1;9(12):4423-34. Full Article

7. Johansen JS, Christensen IJ, Riisbro R, Greenall M, Han C, Price PA, Smith K, Brunner N, Harris AL. High serum YKL-40 levels in patients with primary breast cancer is related to short recurrence free survival. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003 Jul;80(1):15-21. Full Article

8. Hogdall EV, Johansen JS, Kjaer SK, Price PA, Christensen L, Blaakaer J, Bock JE, Glud E, Hogdall CK. High plasma YKL-40 level in patients with ovarian cancer stage III is related to shorter survival. Oncol Rep. 2003 Sep-Oct;10(5):1535-8. Full Article

9. Nojgaard C, Johansen JS, Christensen E, Skovgaard LT, Price PA, Becker U; EMALD Group. Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP as prognostic markers in patients with alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2003 Aug;39(2):179-86. Full Article

10. Vind I, Johansen JS, Price PA, Munkholm P. Serum YKL-40, a potential new marker of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Scan J Gastroenterol 2003; 38(6)599-605. Full Article

11. Dehn H, HØgdal EVS, Johansen JS, JØrgensen M, Price PA, Engelholm SAA, and HØgdall CK. Plasma YKL-40, as a prognostic tumor marker in recurrent ovarian cancer.Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2003;
82(3):287-93. Full Article

12. Cintin C, Johansen JS, Christensen IJ, Price PA, Sorensen S, Nielsen HJ. High serum YKL-40 level after surgery for colorectal carcinoma is related to short survival. Cancer 2002 Jul 15;95(2):267-74. Full Article

13. Kronborg G, Ostergaard C, Weis N, Nielsen H, Obel N, Pedersen SS, Price PA, Johansen JS. Serum level of YKL-40 is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia and is associated with the outcome of the disease. Scand J Infect Dis 2002;34(5):323-6. Full Article

14. Ostergaard C, Johansen JS, Benfield T, Price PA, Lundgren JD 2002 YKL-40 is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with purulent meningitis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9(3):598-604. Full Article

15. Johansen JS, Olee T, Price PA, Hashimoto S, Ochs RL, Lotz M 2001 Regulation of YKL-40 production by human articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum 44(4):826-37. Full Article

16. Johansen JS, Kirwan JR, Price PA, Sharif M 2001 Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: relation to joint destruction. Scand J Rheumatol 30(5):297-304. Full Article

17. Volck B, Johansen JS, Stoltenberg M, Garbarsch C, Price PA, Ostergaard M, Ostergaard K, Lovgreen-Nielsen P, Sonne-Holm S, Lorenzen I 2001 Studies on YKL-40 in knee joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Involvement of YKL-40 in the joint pathology. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(3):203-14. Full Article

18. Cintin C, Johansen JS, Skov F, Price PA, Nielsen HJ 2001 Accumulation of the neutrophil-derived protein YKL-40 during storage of various blood components. Inflamm Res 50(2):107-11. Full Article

19. Johansen JS, Christoffersen P, Moller S, Price PA, Henriksen JH, Garbarsch C, Bendtsen F 2000 Serum YKL-40 is increased in patients with hepatic fibrosis. J Hepatol 32(6):911-20. Full Article

20. Hogdall EV, Johansen JS, Kjaer SK, Price PA, Blaakjaer J, Hogdall CK 2000 Stability of YKL-40 concentration in blood samples. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 60(4):247-51. Full Article

21. Johansen JS, Stoltenberg M, Hansen M, Florescu A, Horslev-Petersen K, Lorenzen I, Price PA 1999 Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity. Rheumatology (Oxford) 38(7):618-26. Full Article

22. Johansen JS, Baslund B, Garbarsch C, Hansen M, Stoltenberg M, Lorenzen I, Price PA 1999 YKL-40 in giant cells and macrophages from patients with giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum 42(12):2624-30.

23. Volck B, Ostergaard K, Johansen JS, Garbarsch C, Price PA 1999 The distribution of YKL-40 in osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage. Scand J Rheumatol 28(3):171-9. Full Article

24. Nordenbaek C, Johansen JS, Junker P, Borregaard N, Sorensen O, Price PA 1999 YKL-40, a matrix protein of specific granules in neutrophils, is elevated in serum of patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. J Infect Dis 180(5):1722-6. Full Article

25. Volck B, Price PA, Johansen JS, Sorensen O, Benfield TL, Nielsen HJ, Calafat J, Borregaard N 1998 YKL-40, a mammalian member of the chitinase family, is a matrix protein of specific granules in human neutrophils. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 110(4):351-60.

26. Johansen JS, Moller S, Price PA, Bendtsen F, Junge J, Garbarsch C, Henriksen JH 1997 Plasma YKL-40: a new potential marker of fibrosis in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis? Scand J Gastroenterol 32(6):582-90.

27. Johansen JS, Hvolris J, Hansen M, Backer V, Lorenzen I, Price PA 1996 Serum YKL-40 levels in healthy children and adults. Comparison with serum and synovial fluid levels of YKL-40 in patients with osteoarthritis or trauma of the knee joint. Br J Rheumatol 35(6):553-9. Abstract

28. Hu B, Trinh K, Figueira WF, Price PA 1996 Isolation and sequence of a novel human chondrocyte protein related to mammalian members of the chitinase protein family. J Biol Chem 271(32):19415-20. Full Article

29. Johansen JS, Cintin C, Jorgensen M, Kamby C, Price PA 1995 Serum YKL-40: a new potential marker of prognosis and location of metastases of patients with recurrent breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 31A(9):1437-42.Full Article

30. Johansen JS, Jensen HS, Price PA 1993 A new biochemical marker for joint injury. Analysis of YKL-40 in serum and synovial fluid. Br J Rheumatol 32(11):949-55.

31. Johansen JS, Williamson MK, Rice JS, Price PA 1992 Identification of proteins secreted by human osteoblastic cells in culture. J Bone Miner Res 7(5):501-12.