Levin, B., F. M. Stewart and L. Chao. 1977. Resource-limited growth, competition, and predation: a model and experimental studies with bacteria and bacteriophage. American Naturalist 111:3-24.

Chao, L., Levin, B. R., & Stewart, F. M. 1977. A complex community in a simple habitat: an experimental study with bacteria and phage. Ecology 58:369-378.

Goguen, J. D. & L. Chao. 1980. Estimating total genic diversity: Problems with the method of Bonhomme and Selander. Biochemical Genetics 18:333-335.

Chao, L. & B. R. Levin. 1981. Structured Habitats and the evolution of anticompetitor toxins in bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 78:6324-6328.

Chao, L. & Cox, E. C. 1983. Competition between high and low mutating strains of Escherichia coli. Evolution 37:125-134.

Chao, L., Vargas, C., Spear, B. B., & Cox, E. C. 1983. Transposable elements as mutator genes in evolution. Nature 303:633-635.

Chao, L. & G. Ramsdell. 1985. The effects of wall populations on coexistence of bacteria in the liquid phase of chemostat cultures. Journal of General Microbiology 131:1229-1236.

Chao, L. & McBroom, S. 1985. Evolution of transposable elements: an IS10 insertion increases fitness in Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2:359-369.

Chao, L. 1986. Using Negative Cross-Resistance to Reduce Levels of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterial Populations. In Banbury Report 24: Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Ecology, Transfer, and Expression, S. Levy & R. Novick, Ed. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York).

Chao, L. 1988. Evolution of Sex in RNA Viruses. Journal of Theoretical Biology 133:99-112.

Chao, L. 1990. Fitness of RNA virus decreased by Muller's ratchet. Nature 348:454-455.

Chao, L. 1991. Units of Selection, Evolution of Sex in RNA Viruses, and the Origin of Life. Journal of Theoretical Biology 153:229-246.

Chao, L., T. Trang, and C. Matthews. 1992. Muller's ratchet and the advantage of sex in the RNA virus f6. Evolution 46:289-299.

Chao, L. 1992. Evolution of Sex in RNA Viruses. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7:147-151.

Chao, L. 1992. Reply to W. D. Hamilton. Letter to the Editor. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7:278.

Chao, L. and D. E. Carr. 1993. The Molecular Clock and the Relationship between Population Size and Generation Time. Evolution 47:688-690.

Stephan, W., L. Chao and J Smale. 1993. The Advance of Muller's Ratchet in a Haploid Asexual Population: Approximate Solutions Based on Diffusion Theory. Genetical Research, Cambridge 61:225-231.

Chao, L. 1994. Evolution of Genetic Exchange in RNA Viruses. In The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (ed. Morse, S. S.), p. 233-250. Raven Press, New York.

Gill, D. E., L. Chao, S. L. Perkins and J. B. Wolf. 1995. Genetic mosaicism in plants and clonal animals. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 26:423-444.

Rang, C. U., R. M. Kennan, T. Midtvedt, L. Chao and P. L. Conway. 1996. Transfer of the RP1 plasmid in vivo in germfree mice and in vitro in gut extracts and laboratory media. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 19:133-140.

Francino, M. P., L. Chao, M. A. Riley, and H. Ochman. 1996. Asymmetries Generated by Transcription-Coupled Repair in Enterobacterial Genes. Science 272:107-109.

Fenster, C., L. Galloway, and L. Chao. 1997. Epistasis and its consequences for the evolution of natural populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:282-286.

Fenster, C. B., L. Chao, and L. F. Galloway. 1997. Reply to H. T. Band. Correspondence. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:400.

Chao, L., T. T. Trang, and T. T. Trang. 1997. The Advantage of Sex in the RNA Phage f6. Genetics 147:953-959.

Chao, L. 1997. Evolution of Polyandry in a Communal Breeding System. Behavioral Ecology 8:668-674.

Chao, L. 1997. Evolution of Sex and the Molecular Clock in RNA viruses. Gene 205:301-308.

Turner, P. E. and L. Chao. 1998. Sex and the evolution of intrahost competition in RNA virus f6. Genetics 150: 523-532.

Rang, C. U., T. R. Licht, T. Midvedt, P. L. Conway, L. Chao, K. A. Krogfelt, P. S. Cohen and S. Molin. 1999. Estimation of growth rates of Escherichia coli BJ4 in monoassociated, streptomycin-treated and conventional mice by in situ rRNA hybridization. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 6: 434-436.

Turner, P. E., C. L. Burch, K. Hanley and L. Chao. 1999. Hybrid frequencies confirm limit to coinfection in the RNA bacteriophage f6. Journal of Virology 73:2420-2424.

Burch, C. B. and L. Chao. 1999. Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus f6. Genetics 151:921-927.

Turner, P. E. and L. Chao. 1999. Prisoner’s Dilemma in an RNA Virus. Nature 398:441-443

Chao, L. 2000. The Meaning of Life. BioScience 50:245-250.

Chao, L., K. Hanley, C. L. Burch, C. Dahlberg, and P. E. Turner. 2000. Kin Selection and Parasite Evolution: Higher and Lower Virulence with Hard and Soft Selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 75:261-275.

Burch, L. C. and L. Chao. 2000. Evolvability of an RNA virus determined by its mutational neighborhood. Nature 406:625-628.

Rang, C. U., T. Midtvedt, S. Molin, and L. Chao. 2001. Persistence of E. coli in conventionalized mono-associated and streptomycin-treated mice: A chemostat modeling of experimental data. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 47:86-90.

Lance, S. and L. Chao. 2001. Sperm-expenditure strategies: the role of mating order, sperm precedence, and non-optimal behavior. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:1322-1329.

Chao, L., C. U. Rang, and L. E. Wong. 2002. The distribution of spontaneous mutants and inferences about the replication mode of the RNA bacteriophage f6. J. of Virology 76:3276–3281.

Turner, P. E. and L. Chao. 2003. Escape from the prisoner's dilemma in RNA phage f6. American Naturalist 161:497-505.

Lythgoe, K. and L. Chao. 2003. The importance of random mutations for the coexistence of a bacteria and a bacteriophage. Ecology Letters 6: 326-334.

Lorch, P. D. and L Chao. 2003. Selection for multiple mating in females due to mates that reduce female fitness. Behavioral Ecology 14:679–686.

de Visser, J. A. G.M., J. Hermisson, G. P. Wagner, L. A. Meyers, H. Bagheri-Chaichian, J. L. Blanchard, L.Chao, J. M. Cheverud, S. F. Elena, W. Fontana, G. Gibson, T. F. Hansen, D. Krakauer, R. C. Lewontin, C. Ofria, S. H. Rice, G. von Dassow, A. Wagner, and M. C. Whitlock. 2003. Perspective: Evolution And Detection Of Genetic Robustness. Evolution. 57:1959–1972

Dahlberg, C. and L. Chao. 2003. Amelioration of the cost of conjugative plasmid carriage in Eschericha Coli K12. Genetics 165:1641-1649.

Rang, C.U., J. E. Galen, J. B. Kaper, and L. Chao. 2003. Fitness cost of the Green Fluorescent Protein in gastrointestinal bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 49:531-537.

Poon, A. and L. Chao. 2004. Drift increases the advantage of sex in RNA bacteriophage Phi6. Genetics 166:19-24.

Ackermann, M. and L. Chao. 2004. Evolution of Cooperation: Two for One? Current Biology 14:R73-R74.

Burch, C. L. and L. Chao. 2004. Epistasis and its relationship to canalization in the RNA virus f6. Genetics 167:559-567.

Rémy Froissart, Claus O. Wilke, Rebecca Montville, Susanna K. Remold, Lin Chao and Paul E. Turner. 2004. Co-infection weakens selection against epistatic mutations in RNA viruses. Genetics 168:9-19.

Poon, A. and L. Chao. 2005. The Coupon Collector and the suppressor mutation: estimating the number of compensatory alleles by maximum likelihood. Genetics 170:1323-1332.

Poon, A. and L. Chao. 2005. The Rate of Compensatory Mutation in the DNA Bacteriophage phiX174. Genetics 170:989-999.

Silander, Olin K., Daniel M. Weinreich, Kevin M. Wright, Kara J. O’Keefe, Camilla U. Rang, Paul E. Turner and Lin Chao. The Frequency of Reassortment in Cystoviridae Phage and Implications for Genetic Modularity (in press).

Olin K. Silander, Olivier Tenaillon and Lin Chao. Epistasis and the Distribution of Mutational Effects (in preparation).

Ackermann, M., Chao, L. and Doebeli, M. On the Evolutionary Origin of Aging (in preparation).

Weinreich, D. M., R. Watson, and L. Chao 2005. Perspectives: Sign epistasis and constraint on evolutionary trajectories. Evolution 59:1165-1174.

Weinreich, D. M., and L. Chao 2005. Rapid evolutionary escape in large populations from local peaks on the Wrightian fitness landscape. Evolution 59:1175-1182.


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