My research focuses on animal species, their evolution and their conservation. Initially, my research focused on the genetic characterization of species in groups that are hard-to-classify. I subsequently, turned my attention to species of conservation concern and pioneered the use of noninvasive genotyping in studies of some high-profile species. In recent years, I have devoted more attention to problems of biodiversity conservation and sustainability in a post-natural world. These research activities spill over into my community service as a Board member of the San Diego Zoo where I focus on sustainable collection management and re-aligning the zoo as a conservation organization.

I have worked with a wide variety of animals (primates, rodents, elephants, birds, frogs, trematodes and molluscs) using allozyme and molecular genetic techniques. My scientific results are published 156 peer-reviewed research papers. I have edited one book on the evolution of animal species, and a series of field guides. In addition, I have published 15 book reviews (7 in the journal Science), 26 notes, reports, letters to editors, and technical comments, and 70 more popular notes, reports and abstracts of talks (including 23 presented at international meetings). These contributions can usefully be sorted into the following nine themes, the first eight themes are listed here in the chronological sequence in which I approached them, and the last is a more generic category. Please note that only 156 of the 227 publications on my official UCSD bibliography are discussed in the following annotated list.

Ecology evolution and speciation in the Australian frogs, Pseudophryne.
(13 papers, 1 manuscript in preparation, >244 citations)*

Evolution and speciation in the Bahamian land snail Cerion
(14 papers, 2 manuscripts in preparation, >485 citations)

Evolution and coevolution of human blood flukes, Schistosoma, and their host snails
(19 papers, >416 citations)

Evolution and speciation in other molluscs
(8 papers, >136 citations)

Contributions to conservation biology and conservation genetics
(23 papers, 4 manuscripts, >725 citations)

Molecular genetics, evolution and phylogeography of mammal species
(30 papers, 2 manuscripts, >1428 citations)

Molecular genetics, evolution and phylogeography of bird species
(11 papers, 1 manuscript in preparation, >280 citations)

Biogeography and conservation in Southeast Asia
(10 papers, 1 manuscript in preparation, >220 citations)

Other contributions to education and training in ecology and conservation biology
(28 papers and book reviews)

My genetic analyses of animal species are relevant to long-standing debates about just what constitutes a species and how they should be defined. I have contributed to the development of what is now called the genotypic cluster species concept by elucidating patterns in taxa that have confounded specialists. I have shown how taxonomic nightmares are evolutionist's delights and how multilocus genetic distances can be used to establish the significance of hybrid zones, the degree of differentiation between allopatric populations, and the extent of diversification in groups that exhibit morphological stasis. In the course of this work I have synonymized or lumped about 300 species and split about 20 others. The latter taxonomic changes have attracted more attention as they involve well-known species of chimpanzee, elephant, snails and human parasites.

In the last 15 years I have conscientiously shifted from looking backwards through evolutionary time to trying to look forward, to develop methods of ensuring the future evolution of animal species threatened with extinction. In addition to contributing 25 general papers in the field of conservation genetics, I have turned my attention to the evolution of a handful of high profile birds and mammals. Frustrated in attempts to study rhinoceros genetics (obtaining blood samples was a non-trivial challenge even at the zoo) I set about to develop noninvasive wildlife genotyping methods based on PCR-amplified DNA from shed hair, feathers and feces. In 1989, my student, Phil Morin, and I pioneered these methods and I have subsequently demonstrated their power in a series of 32 papers on chimpanzees and other primates, other mammals ranging from elephants to tree shrews, and birds. I have also begun to devote more attention to global change and its impact on natural and human ecosystems in Southeast Asia.

Please note: Publications are arranged by theme. The copyright of these articles (with the exception of Open Access articles) is with their respective publishers. By downloading an article, you agree to limit the use of the pdf file to printing of single copies for personal research and study. You may not modify the files in any way, or to use them for commercial purposes.

* number of citations taken as the higher number provided by Google Scholar or ISI, July 2010.